Minerals and vitamins and the risk of bladder cancer: results from the New Hampshire Study
Although the effect of fruit and vegetables on the risk of bladder cancer has been widely studied, little is known about their micronutrient components. Our aim was to investigate associations between minerals and vitamins and bladder cancer.
A case–control study was conducted in New Hampshire, USA. Dietary data were collected from 322 cases and 239 controls using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression adjusting for sex, age, smoking characteristics, and energy intake.
The ORs (95% CI) for highest quartile versus lowest quartile for total intake of vitamin E was 0.66 (0.36–1.20; p trend = 0.09) and 0.49 (0.21–1.17; p trend = 0.13) for dietary phosphorus. The odds of bladder cancer for heavy smokers with the highest total intake of vitamin E, carotenoids, and niacin were 0.58 (0.34–0.99), 0.62 (0.36–1.09), and 0.66 (0.39–1.14), respectively. Higher total intakes of carotenoids, vitamin D, thiamin, niacin, and vitamin E were inversely related to bladder cancer risk among older individuals.
Our findings suggest further investigation of the effect of vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin D, thiamin, and niacin on bladder cancer risk may be warranted. Future studies should focus on high risk groups such as heavy smokers and older individuals.