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Immunomodulatory characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells and their role in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system (CNS). Although the main cause of MS is not clear, studies suggest that MS is an autoimmune disease which attacks myelin sheath of neurons. There are different therapeutic regimens for MS patients including interferon (IFN)-β, glatiramer acetate (GA), and natalizumab. However, such therapies are not quite effective and are associated with some side effects. So which, there is no complete therapeutic method for MS patients. Regarding the potent immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their ameliorative effects in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy (EAE), it seems that MSCs may be a new therapeutic method in MS therapy. MSC transplantation is an approach to regulate the immune system in the region of CNS lesions. In this review, we have tried to discuss about the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs and their therapeutic mechanisms in MS patients.