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Disturbed Glutathione Metabolism and Decreased Antioxidant Levels in Human Immunodeficiency VirusInfected Patients during Highly Active Antiretroviral TherapyPotential Immunomodulatory Effects of Antioxidants

Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We examined the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on plasma levels of several antioxidants and intracellular glutathione-redox status in CD4+ T cells, in 20 HIV-infected patients. HAART was accompanied by both an improvement of glutathione-redox status and an increase in levels of antioxidant vitamins, without full normalization. Glutathione supplementation in vitro increases T cell proliferation and suppresses the spontaneous release of tumor necrosis factorndashalpha from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART. Our findings suggest that therapeutic intervention aimed at normalization of oxidative disturbances in HIV infection could be of interest, in addition to HAART.