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Association of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection with coronary artery disease and its interaction with chlamydial infection

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) seropositivity was reported to be associated with coronary events. MP organisms were detected with Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) in coronary plaques. We investigated MP and CP seropositivity in 549 patients undergoing coronary angiography. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was found in 396 patients, of whom 154 had myocardial infarction (MI). MP seropositivity was more prevalent in patients with CAD than without CAD (14% versus 6%, P < 0.01). The highest prevalence was found in patients with MI. In contrast, the prevalence of CP seropositivity was similar in patients with and without CAD (62% versus 59%). To clarify interaction with CP infection, 549 patients were divided into two groups with and without CP seropositivity. Among patients with CP seropositivity, MP seropositivity was more prevalent in patients with CAD than without CAD (17% versus 5%, P < 0.01), whereas among patients without CP seropositivity, MP seropositivity did not differ between patients with and without CAD (9% versus 6%). In multivariate analysis, MP seropositivity was associated with CAD only in patients with CP seropositivity (odds RATIO = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.8–14.9). Thus, MP seropositivity was associated with CAD. However, this association was confined to patients with CP seropositivity. Coinfection by MP and CP may be an important cofactor for CAD.