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Antioxidant Effects and Insulin Resistance Improvement of Chromium Combined with Vitamin C and E Supplementation for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

To determine the effects of combined supplementation with chromium (Cr) and vitamins C and E on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes, adult subjects with HbA1c >8.5%. Subjects (n = 30) in this randomized, double blind, placebo-control study were divided into three groups (placebo, Cr or Cr + C + E) on daily treatment. The Cr group received 1000 µg of Cr (as Cr yeast); the Cr + C + E group received Cr (1000 µg as Cr yeast) together with vitamins C (1000 mg) and E (800 IU); and, a control group received a placebo. Baseline plasma Cr levels were not significant differences comparing the supplementation and placebo groups. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidative status (TAS) were also not significant different. Following the 6-month study period, the plasma TBARS levels, fasting glucose, HbA1c and insulin resistance were significantly decreased in the Cr and Cr + C + E groups, but not for the placebo group. Plasma TAS and glutathione peroxidase were significantly higher for Cr and Cr + C + E groups relative to the placebo group. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation alone and combined of Cr together with vitamins C and E was effective for minimization of oxidative stress and improvement of glucose metabolism in type 2 DM patients.