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Anticancer effects of garlic and garlic-derived compounds for breast cancer control.


Garlic and garlic-derived compounds reduce the development of mammary cancer in animals and suppress the growth of human breast cancer cells in culture. Oil-soluble compounds derived from garlic, such as diallyl disulfide (DADS), are more effective than water-soluble compounds in suppressing breast cancer. Mechanisms of action include the activation of metabolizing enzymes that detoxify carcinogens, the suppression of DNA adduct formation, the inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species, the regulation of cell-cycle arrest…

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Effect of lycopene on cell viability and cell cycle progression in human cancer cell lines


Background: Lycopene, a major carotenoid component of tomato, has a potential anticancer activity in many types of cancer. Epidemiological and clinical trials rarely provide evidence for mechanisms of the compound’s action, and studies on its effect on cancer of different cell origins are now being done. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of lycopene on cell cycle and cell viability in eight human cancer cell lines. Methods: Human cell lines…

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Lycopene and Cancer


Epidemiological and human clinical trials suggest that dietary intake of tomatoes or lycopene protects against cancers of the prostate, breast, cervix, ovary, endometrium, lung, bladder, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, colon, and pancreas.

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Selective Inhibition of Cell Proliferation by Lycopene in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells In vitro: A Proteomic Analysis


Lycopene, a red pigmented carotenoid present in many fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, has been associated with the reduced risk of breast cancer. This study sought to identify proteins modulated by lycopene during cell proliferation of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 to gain an understanding into its mechanism of action. MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10 normal breast cells were treated with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 μM of lycopene for 72 h….

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The role of lycopene and its derivatives in the regulation of transcription systems: implications for cancer prevention1,2,3,4


Evidence from epidemiologic studies has suggested that carotenoids, and lycopene in particular, decrease the risk of cancer: however, not all studies support this view. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby lycopene and other carotenoids may exert their chemoprotective effects, we and others performed a series of studies that used a large panel of cancer cell lines of different lineages and animal models of human cancer. In this review we address some of the…

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Broccoli-derived phytochemicals indole-3-carbinol and 3,3′-diindolylmethane exerts concentration-dependent pleiotropic effects on prostate cancer cells: Comparison with other cancer preventive phytochemicals


In the present studies, we utilized prostate cancer cell culture models to elucidate the mechanisms of action of broccoli-derived phytochemicals 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C). We found DIM and I3C at 1–5 µM inhibited androgen and estrogen-mediated pathways and induced xenobiotic metabolism pathway. By contrast, DIM and I3C induced cyclin inhibitors, indicators of stress/DNA damage, only at ≥25 µM. We also demonstrated that an inhibitory effect of DIM and I3C on cell growth involves inhibition of insulin-like…

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Inhibition of bladder cancer by broccoli isothiocyanates sulforaphane and erucin: Characterization, metabolism, and interconversion


Scope Epidemiologic evidence suggests diets rich in cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, are associated with lower bladder cancer risk. Our objectives are to investigate these observations and determine the role of isothiocyanates in primary or secondary bladder cancer prevention. Methods and results We initially investigate the mechanisms whereby broccoli and broccoli sprout extracts and pure isothiocyanates inhibit normal, noninvasive (RT4), and invasive (J82, UMUC3) human urothelial cell viability. Sulforaphane (IC50 = 5.66 ± 1.2 μM) and erucin (IC50 = 8.79 ± 1.3 μM) are found…

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Dietary constituents of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables: Implications for prevention and therapy of cancer


Over the past several decades, research on the action of bioactive constituents of plants has focused predominantly on their cancer-preventive properties. Today it can be explained why the consumption of fruits and vegetables may lead to a reduced frequency of certain cancer entities and why certain foods have therapeutic effects. Secondary plant products and especially glucosinolates from vegetables of the cruciferae family are supposed to have anti-carcinogenic potential. The present article gives an overview about…

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Sulforaphane, a Dietary Component of Broccoli/Broccoli Sprouts, Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem Cells


Purpose: The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in breast cancer has profound implications for cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated sulforaphane, a natural compound derived from broccoli/broccoli sprouts, for its efficacy to inhibit breast CSCs and its potential mechanism. Experimental Design: Aldefluor assay and mammosphere formation assay were used to evaluate the effect of sulforaphane on breast CSCs in vitro. A nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient xenograft model was used to determine whether sulforaphane…

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Lycopene induces cell growth inhibition by altering mevalonate pathway and Ras signaling in cancer cell lines


Several evidences suggest that cancer cells have abnormal cholesterol biosynthetic pathways and prenylation of small guanosine triphosphatase proteins. Tomato lycopene has been suggested to have beneficial effects against certain types of cancer, including that of prostate, although the exact molecular mechanism(s) is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that lycopene may exert its antitumor effects through changes in mevalonate pathway and in Ras activation. Incubation of the Ras-activated prostatic carcinoma LNCaP cells with a 24 h…

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