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Dietary astaxanthin inhibits colitis and colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice via modulation of the inflammatory cytokines


Astaxanthin (AX) is one of the marine carotenoid pigments, which possess powerful biological antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible inhibitory effect of AX against inflammation-related mouse colon carcinogenesis and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in male ICR mice. We conducted two different experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated the effects of AX at three dose levels, 50, 100 and 200 ppm in diet, on colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis…

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Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans


Background: Astaxanthin modulates immune response, inhibits cancer cell growth, reduces bacterial load and gastric inflammation, and protects against UVA-induced oxidative stress in in vitro and rodent models. Similar clinical studies in humans are unavailable. Our objective is to study the action of dietary astaxanthin in modulating immune response, oxidative status and inflammation in young healthy adult female human subjects. Methods: Participants (averaged 21.5 yr) received 0, 2, or 8 mg astaxanthin (n = 14/diet) daily…

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Mushroom extract increases p53 expression and causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a breast cancer cell line.


Mushrooms are part of the sexual life cycle of particular fungi with specific metabolic pathways, and therefore may contain a largely unexploited source of powerful new pharmaceutical products with potential antitumor properties [1,2]. Furthermore, they may have potential as functional foods. Suillus collinitus is an edible mushroom found in European pine forests. The aim of this work was to study the cytotoxic potential of extracts from this mushroom in various cancer cell lines. Different extracts…

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Green and Black Tea Inhibit Cytokine-Induced Il-8 Production and Secretion in AGS Gastric Cancer Cells via Inhibition of NF-κB Activity


Consumption of tea is associated with a reduced risk for several gastrointestinal cancers. Inflammatory processes, such as secretion of IL-8 from the gastric epithelium in response to chronic chemokine or antigen exposure, serve both as a chemoattractant for white blood cells and a prerequisite for gastric carcinogenesis. In this study, the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS was used to investigate the effect of green tea extract, black tea extract, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most…

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The antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of green tea polyphenols: a role in cancer prevention*


Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, of which (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Studies in animal models of carcinogenesis have shown that green tea and EGCG can inhibit tumorigenesis during the initiation, promotion and progression stages. Many potential mechanisms have been proposed including both antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects, but questions remain regarding the relevance of these mechanisms to cancer prevention. In the present review we will discuss the redox chemistry of the…

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Green Tea and Cancer Prevention


Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on…

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Aged black garlic extract induces inhibition of gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.


There is mounting evidence that garlic extracts possess significant anticancer actions. However, no studies have been reported on the effects of aged black garlic extracts (ABGE) on gastric cancer in vitro or in vivo. To examine the potential action of ABGE against gastric cancer, the present study evaluated its effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. Additionally, we performed an in vivo study by inoculating…

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Allicin Purified From Fresh Garlic Cloves Induces Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells Via Nrf2


Allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) is the best-known biologically active component in freshly crushed garlic extract. We developed a novel, simple method to isolate active allicin, which yielded a stable compound in aqueous solution amenable for use in in vitro and in vivo studies. We focused on the in vitro effects of allicin on cell proliferation of colon cancer cell lines HCT-116, LS174T, HT-29, and Caco-2 and assessed the underlying mechanisms. This allicin preparation exerted a time-…

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Garlic and Cancer Prevention


Key Points 1. Research during the past decade has provided a wealth of evidence that links garlic intake and its associated sulfur compounds as an important deterrent to cancer. 2. Both water- and lipid-sulfur allyl sulfur compounds appear to account for much of garlic’s anticarcinogenic and antitumorigenic properties. 3. Some of the strongest evidence comes from preclinical models where garlic and its constituents have been found to retard chemically induced cancer at multiple sites as…

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Protective effect of garlic in skin cancer


The incidence of cancer is rising in almost all parts of the world because of changes in the environment, changes in life style and food habits as well as due to growing industrialization and modernization. UV exposures from the sun in the exposed areas of the body are the prime locations of developing skin cancer. The rate of skin cancer is rising in an alarming rate and more than 10 million cases of skin cancer…

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