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The Vascular System as a Target of Metal Toxicity *

Vascular system function involves complex interactions among the vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, the immune system, and the nervous system. The toxic metals cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb) can target the vascular system in a variety of ways, ranging from hemorrhagic injury to subtle pathogenic remodeling and metabolic changes. Acute Cd exposure results in hemorrhagic injury to the testis, although some strains of animals are resistant to this effect. A comparison of Cd-sensitive with Cd-resistant mouse strains showed that expression of the Slc39a8 gene, encoding the ZIP8 transporter, in the testis vasculature endothelium is responsible for this difference. Endogenously, ZIP8 is a Mn2+/HCO3–symporter that may also contribute to Cd damage in the kidney.

Chronic Cd exposure is associated with various cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension and cardiomyopathy and it is reported to have both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic activities. At noncytotoxic concentrations of 10–100nM, Cd can inhibit chemotaxis and tube formation of vascular endothelial cells. These angiostatic effects may be mediated through disruption of vascular endothelial cadherin, a Ca2+-dependent cell adhesion molecule. With regard to As, ingestion of water containing disease-promoting concentrations of As promotes capillarization of the liver sinusoidal endothelium. Because capillarization is a hallmark precursor for liver fibrosis and contributes to an imbalance of lipid metabolism, this As effect on hepatic endothelial cells may be a pathogenic mechanism underlying As-related vascular diseases. With regard to Pb, perinatal exposure may cause sustained elevations in adult blood pressure, and genetically susceptible animals may show enhanced sensitivity to this effect. Taken together, these data indicate that the vascular system is a critical target of metal toxicity and that actions of metals on the vascular system may play important roles in mediating the pathophysiologic effects of metals in specific target organs.

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As with any procedure, there could be pain or other substantial risks involved. These concerns should be discussed with your health care provider prior to any treatment so that you have proper informed consent and understand that there are no guarantees to healing.

THE INFORMATION IN THIS WEBSITE IS OFFERED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND DOES NOT IMPLY OR GIVE MEDICAL ADVICE. No Doctor/Patient relationship shall be deemed to have arisen simply by reading the information contained on these pages, and you should consult with your personal physician/care giver regarding your medical treatment before undergoing any sort of treatment or therapy.

Published on 05-11-2009
Authors: Walter C. Prozialeck*,1, Joshua R. Edwards*, Daniel W. Nebert{dagger}, James M. Woods{ddagger}, Aaron Barchowsky§ and William D. Atchison¶
Source: ToxSci Advance Access originally published online on October 18, 2007