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The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the study of manganese neurotoxicity *

Manganese (Mn), an element found in many foods, is an important and essential nutrient for proper health and maintenance. It is toxic in high doses, however, and exposure to excessive levels can result in the onset of a neurological disorder similar to, but distinct from, Parkinson's disease. Historically, Mn neurotoxicity was most commonly associated with various occupations, such as Mn mining, welding and steel production. More recently, increases in both blood and brain Mn levels have been observed in persons with liver disease or those receiving prolonged parenteral nutrition. Additionally, rodent data suggest that iron deficiency and anemia may be risk factors for Mn neurotoxicity.

Clinically, brain Mn accumulation can be monitored in vivo using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to the paramagnetic nature of this element. Indeed, MRI has been used in a variety of settings to evaluate the brain Mn deposition in various populations. This review focuses on the use of MRI technology in studies related specifically to Mn neurotoxicity. Thus, we will examine reports using MRI to confirm brain Mn accumulation in human populations, and conclude with data from non-human primate and rodent models of Mn neurotoxicity.

* Legal Disclaimer: Chelation and Hyperbaric Therapy, Stem Cell Therapy, and other treatments and modalities mentioned or referred to in this web site are medical techniques that may or may not be considered “mainstream”. As with any medical treatment, results will vary among individuals, and there is no implication or guarantee that you will heal or achieve the same outcome as patients herein.

As with any procedure, there could be pain or other substantial risks involved. These concerns should be discussed with your health care provider prior to any treatment so that you have proper informed consent and understand that there are no guarantees to healing.

THE INFORMATION IN THIS WEBSITE IS OFFERED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND DOES NOT IMPLY OR GIVE MEDICAL ADVICE. No Doctor/Patient relationship shall be deemed to have arisen simply by reading the information contained on these pages, and you should consult with your personal physician/care giver regarding your medical treatment before undergoing any sort of treatment or therapy.

Published on 09-01-2008
Authors: Vanessa A. Fitsanakisa, Na Zhangb, Malcolm J. Avisonb, John C. Goreb, c, Judy L. Aschnera, c and Michael Aschner
Source: Received 4 November 2005; accepted 2 March 2006. Available online 18 April 2006.