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Multiple sclerosis is linked to Epstein-Barr virus infection *

The aetiology and pathogenesis of MS are unknown, but environmental agents, genetic susceptibility and stochastic events are likely to be involved. In order to evaluate the possibility that MS is linked to EBV infection, we here evaluate studies on MS- and EBV-epidemiology, prospective and retrospective analysis of EBV-serology, investigations of EBV DNA sequences in blood and tissues, specificity of antibodies in oligoclonal bands in MS patients and results from antiviral chemotherapy of MS patients. It could be demonstrated that EBV is complying with the epidemiological observations in MS and that all MS patients are seropositive to EBV in contrast to healthy controls. Importantly, despite difficulties in diagnosing child-MS, the vast majority of these patients are also EBV seropositive. In contrast to control groups, recent EBV infections have never been observed in children or adults with MS. Further prospective studies indicate a 2.8 times higher tendency for development of MS after infectious mononucleosis. In MS patients, unbiased analyses pull out EBV antigens as high-affinity targets for the antibodies in the oligoclonal bands. Humans are the exclusive natural host for EBV, a finding that may explain why MS is unique to humans. Together these unique observations strongly suggest a linkage between MS and EBV infection. Infection by EBV offers numerable mechanisms to perturb the immune system, including mimicry and superantigen induction, which may potentially participate in the disease mechanisms. In contrast, studies demonstrating higher IgG titres and occurrence of viral DNA in serum/plasma are likely to reflect a consequence of the disease. An explanation for a potential role of respiratory diseases in MS is discussed. It is concluded that the ultimate test to the hypothesis of MS and EBV is the development and application of an EBV vaccine, which is predicted to eradicate the disease. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

* Legal Disclaimer: Chelation and Hyperbaric Therapy, Stem Cell Therapy, and other treatments and modalities mentioned or referred to in this web site are medical techniques that may or may not be considered “mainstream”. As with any medical treatment, results will vary among individuals, and there is no implication or guarantee that you will heal or achieve the same outcome as patients herein.

As with any procedure, there could be pain or other substantial risks involved. These concerns should be discussed with your health care provider prior to any treatment so that you have proper informed consent and understand that there are no guarantees to healing.

THE INFORMATION IN THIS WEBSITE IS OFFERED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND DOES NOT IMPLY OR GIVE MEDICAL ADVICE. No Doctor/Patient relationship shall be deemed to have arisen simply by reading the information contained on these pages, and you should consult with your personal physician/care giver regarding your medical treatment before undergoing any sort of treatment or therapy.

Published on 09-05-2011
Authors: Sven Haahr, Per Hollsberg
Source: Reviews in Medical Virology, Volume 16, Issue 5, pages 297–310, September/October 2006