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Magnesium as a neuroprotectant in cardiac surgery: A randomized clinical trial *

Objective We sought to evaluate magnesium as a neuroprotectant in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Methods From February 2002 to September 2003, 350 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery, or both were enrolled in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial to receive either magnesium sulfate to increase plasma levels 1½ to 2 times normal during cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 174) or no intervention (n = 176). Neurologic function, neuropsychologic function, and depression were assessed preoperatively, at 24 and 96 hours after extubation (neurologic) and at 3 months (neuropsychologic, depression). Neurologic scores were analyzed using ordinal longitudinal methods, and neuropsychologic and depression inventory data were summarized by principal component analysis, followed by linear regression analysis using component scores as response variables.
Results Seven (2%) patients had a postoperative stroke, 2 (1%) in the magnesium and 5 (3%) in the placebo group (P = .4). Neurologic score was worse postoperatively in both groups (P < .0001); however, magnesium group patients performed better than placebo group patients (P = .0001), who had prolonged declines in short-term memory and reemergence of primitive reflexes. Three-month neuropsychologic performance and depression inventory score were generally better than preoperatively, with few differences between groups (P > .6); however, older age (P = .0006), previous stroke (P = .003), and lower education level (P = .0007) were associated with worse performance.
Conclusions Magnesium administration is safe and improves short-term postoperative neurologic function after cardiac surgery, particularly in preserving short-term memory and cortical control over brainstem functions. However, by 3 months, other factors and not administration of magnesium influence neuropsychologic and depression inventory performance.

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As with any procedure, there could be pain or other substantial risks involved. These concerns should be discussed with your health care provider prior to any treatment so that you have proper informed consent and understand that there are no guarantees to healing.

THE INFORMATION IN THIS WEBSITE IS OFFERED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND DOES NOT IMPLY OR GIVE MEDICAL ADVICE. No Doctor/Patient relationship shall be deemed to have arisen simply by reading the information contained on these pages, and you should consult with your personal physician/care giver regarding your medical treatment before undergoing any sort of treatment or therapy.

Published on 08-11-2008
Authors: Sunil K. Bhudia, MDa, Delos M. Cosgrove, MDa, Richard I. Naugle, PhDb, Jeevanantham Rajeswaran, MScc, Buu-Khanh Lam, MDa, Emily Walton, BScb, John Petrich, RPhd, Roberta C. Palumbo, RNa, A. Marc Gillinov, MDa, Carolyn Apperson-Hansen, MStatc, Eugene H. Blackstone,
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery