SERVICES*

Close-up TV News - Prolotheray lecture

Reversing Hypertension

Heavy Metals and all diseases

Close-Up TV News - Dr. Calapai's approach

News 12 Interview: Parkinson’s Disease, Glutathione and Chelation Therapy

News 12 Interview: Platelet-rich plasma therapy

Prolotherapy Interview News 12

News 12 Interview: Diabetes and Weight Loss
Ironing Iron Out in Parkinson's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases with Iron Chelators: A Lesson from 6-Hydroxydopamine and Iron Chelators, Desferal and VK-28 *

In Parkinson`s disease (PD) and its neurotoxin-induced models, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), significant accumulation of iron occurs in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The iron is thought to be in a labile pool, unbound to ferritin, and is thought to have a pivotal role to induce oxidative stress-dependent neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons via Fenton chemistry. The consequence of this is its interaction with H2O2 to generate the most reactive radical oxygen species, the hydroxyl radical. This scenario is supported by studies in both human and neurotoxin-induced parkinsonism showing that disposition of H2O2 is compromised via depletion of glutathione (GSH), the rate-limiting cofactor of glutathione peroxide, the major enzyme source to dispose H2O2 as water in the brain.

Further, radical scavengers have been shown to prevent the neurotoxic action of the above neurotoxins and depletion of GSH. However, our group was the first to demonstrate that the prototype iron chelator, desferal, is a potent neuroprotective agent in the 6-OHDA model. We have extended these studies and examined the neuroprotective effect of intracerebraventricular (ICV) pretreatment with the prototype iron chelator, desferal (1.3, 13, 134 mg), on ICV induced 6-OHDA (250 µg) lesion of striatal dopamine neurons. Desferal alone at the doses studied did not affect striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity or dopamine (DA) metabolism. All three pretreatment (30 min) doses of desferal prevented the fall in striatal and frontal cortex DA, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovalinic acid, as well as the left and right striatum TH activity and DA turnover resulting from 6-OHDA lesion of dopaminergic neurons. A concentration bell-shaped neuroprotective effect of desferal was observed in the striatum, with 13 µg being the most effective.

Neither desferal nor 6-OHDA affected striatal serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, or noradrenaline. Desferal also protected against 6-OHDA-induced deficit in locomotor activity, rearing, and exploratory behavior (sniffing) in a novel environment. Since the lowest neuroprotective dose (1.3 µg) of desferal was 200 times less than 6-OHDA, its neuroprotective activity may not be attributed to interference with the neurotoxin activity, but rather iron chelation. These studies led us to develop novel brain-permeable iron chelators, the VK-28 series, with iron chelating and neuroprotective activity similar to desferal for ironing iron out from PD and other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Friedreich's ataxia, and Huntington`s disease.

* Legal Disclaimer: Chelation and Hyperbaric Therapy, Stem Cell Therapy, and other treatments and modalities mentioned or referred to in this web site are medical techniques that may or may not be considered “mainstream”. As with any medical treatment, results will vary among individuals, and there is no implication or guarantee that you will heal or achieve the same outcome as patients herein.

As with any procedure, there could be pain or other substantial risks involved. These concerns should be discussed with your health care provider prior to any treatment so that you have proper informed consent and understand that there are no guarantees to healing.

THE INFORMATION IN THIS WEBSITE IS OFFERED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND DOES NOT IMPLY OR GIVE MEDICAL ADVICE. No Doctor/Patient relationship shall be deemed to have arisen simply by reading the information contained on these pages, and you should consult with your personal physician/care giver regarding your medical treatment before undergoing any sort of treatment or therapy.

Published on 08-03-2007