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Exercise and diabetes. *

As rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity continue to increase, physical activity continues to be a fundamental form of therapy. Exercise influences several aspects of diabetes, including blood glucose concentrations, insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors. Blood glucose concentrations reflect the balance between skeletal muscle uptake and ambient concentrations of both insulin and counterinsulin hormones. Difficulties in predicting the relative impact of these factors can result in either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Despite the variable impact of exercise on blood glucose, exercise consistently improves insulin action and several cardiovascular risk factors. Beyond the acute impact of physical activity, long-term exercise behaviors have been repeatedly associated with decreased rates of type 2 diabetes.

While exercise produces many benefits, it is not without risks for patients with diabetes mellitus. In addition to hyperglycemia, from increased hepatic glucose production, insufficient insulin levels can foster ketogenesis from excess concentrations of fatty acids. At the opposite end of the glucose spectrum, hypoglycemia can result from excess glucose uptake due to either increased insulin concentrations, enhanced insulin action or impaired carbohydrate absorption. To decrease the risk for hypoglycemia, insulin doses should be reduced prior to exercise, although some insulin is typically still needed. Although precise risks of exercise on existing diabetic complications have not been well studied, it seems prudent to consider the potential to worsen nephropathy or retinopathy, or to precipitate musculoskeletal injuries. There is more substantive evidence that autonomic neuropathy may predispose patients to arrhythmias. Of clear concern, increased physical activity can precipitate a cardiac event in those with underlying CAD. Recognizing these risks can prompt actions to minimize their impact. Positive actions that are part of exercise programs for diabetic patients emphasize SMBG, foot care and cardiovascular functional assessment. SMBG provides critical information on the impact of exercise and is recommended for all patients before, during and after exercise.

More frequent monitoring (and for longer periods following exercise) is recommended for those with hypoglycemia unawareness or those performing high-intensity exercise. Preventing the sequelae of an exercise-induced severe hypoglycemic reaction can be as simple as carrying glucose tablets or gel, a diabetic identification bracelet or card, or exercising with an individual who is aware of the circumstances. In addition to blood glucose concentrations, proper foot care is critical to people with diabetes who exercise and includes considering type of shoe, type of exercise, inspection of skin surfaces and appropriate evaluation and treatment of lesions (calluses and others). Those with severe neuropathy can consider alternatives to weight-bearing exercises. Precipitation of clinical CAD is of great concern for all diabetic patients participating in exercise activities. Although a sufficiently sensitive and specific screening test for coronary disease has not been identified, those planning an exercise program of moderate intensity or greater should be evaluated. Initial cardiac assessment should include exercise testing as well as identifying risk for autonomic neuropathy.

In addition to noting maximal heart rate and blood pressure as well as ischemic changes, exercise tolerance testing can identify anginal thresholds and patients with asymptomatic ischemia. Those without symptoms should be counseled regarding target pulse rates to avoid inducing ischemia. Ischemic changes need to be evaluated for either further diagnostic testing or pharmacological intervention. For patients with diabetes mellitus, the overall benefits of exercise are clearly significant. Clinicians and patients must work together to maximize these benefits while minimizing risks for negative consequences. Identifying and preventing potential problems beforehand can reduce adverse outcomes and promote this important approach to healthy living.

* Legal Disclaimer: Chelation and Hyperbaric Therapy, Stem Cell Therapy, and other treatments and modalities mentioned or referred to in this web site are medical techniques that may or may not be considered “mainstream”. As with any medical treatment, results will vary among individuals, and there is no implication or guarantee that you will heal or achieve the same outcome as patients herein.

As with any procedure, there could be pain or other substantial risks involved. These concerns should be discussed with your health care provider prior to any treatment so that you have proper informed consent and understand that there are no guarantees to healing.

THE INFORMATION IN THIS WEBSITE IS OFFERED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND DOES NOT IMPLY OR GIVE MEDICAL ADVICE. No Doctor/Patient relationship shall be deemed to have arisen simply by reading the information contained on these pages, and you should consult with your personal physician/care giver regarding your medical treatment before undergoing any sort of treatment or therapy.

Published on 09-10-2007