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Contribution of redox-active iron and copper to oxidative damage in Alzheimer disease *

Metal-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals are potent mediators of cellular injury, affecting every category of macromolecule, and are central to the oxidative injury hypothesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. Studies on redox-competent copper and iron indicate that redox activity in AD resides exclusively within the neuronal cytosol and that chelation with deferoxamine, DTPA, or, more recently, iodochlorhydroxyquin, removes this activity. We have also found that while proteins that accumulate in AD possess metal-binding sites, metal-associated cellular redox activity is primarily dependent on metals associated with nucleic acid, specifically cytoplasmic RNA.

These findings indicate aberrations in iron homeostasis that, we suspect, arise primarily from heme, since heme oxygenase-1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of heme to iron and biliverdin, is increased in AD, and mitochondria, since mitochondria turnover, mitochondrial DNA, and cytochrome C oxidative acitivity are all increased in AD. These findings, as well as studies demonstrating a reduction in microtubule density in AD neurons, suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction, acting in concert with cytoskeletal pathology, serves to increase redox-active heavy metals and initiates a cascade of abnormal events culminating in AD pathology.

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As with any procedure, there could be pain or other substantial risks involved. These concerns should be discussed with your health care provider prior to any treatment so that you have proper informed consent and understand that there are no guarantees to healing.

THE INFORMATION IN THIS WEBSITE IS OFFERED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND DOES NOT IMPLY OR GIVE MEDICAL ADVICE. No Doctor/Patient relationship shall be deemed to have arisen simply by reading the information contained on these pages, and you should consult with your personal physician/care giver regarding your medical treatment before undergoing any sort of treatment or therapy.

Published on 09-15-2008
Authors: Rudy J. Castellania, Kazuhiro Hondaa, Xiongwei Zhua, Adam D. Casha, Akihiko Nunomurab, George Perrya and Mark A. Smith
Source: Elsevier Ireland Ltd