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Cardiac stem cell therapy to modulate inflammation upon myocardial infarction *

Background
After myocardial infarction (MI) a local inflammatory reaction clears the damaged myocardium from dead cells and matrix debris at the onset of scar formation. The intensity and duration of this inflammatory reaction are intimately linked to post-infarct remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Strikingly, treatment with standard anti-inflammatory drugs worsens clinical outcome, suggesting a dual role of inflammation in the cardiac response to injury. Cardiac stem cell therapy with different stem or progenitor cells, e.g. mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), was recently found to have beneficial effects, mostly related to paracrine actions. One of the suggested paracrine effects of cell therapy is modulation of the immune system.

Scope of review
MSC are reported to interact with several cells of the immune system and could therefore be an excellent means to reduce detrimental inflammatory reactions and promote the switch to the healing phase upon cardiac injury. This review focuses on the potential use of MSC therapy for post-MI inflammation. To understand the effects MSC might have on the post-MI heart the cellular and molecular changes in the myocardium after MI need to be understood.

Major conclusions
By studying the general pathways involved in immunomodulation, and examining the interactions with cell types important for post-MI inflammation, it becomes clear that MSC treatment might provide a new therapeutic opportunity to improve cardiac outcome after acute injury.

General significance
Using stem cells to target the post-MI inflammation is a novel therapy which could have considerable clinical implications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells.

Highlights
► The immune response after MI is intimately linked to long term cardiac outcome. ► Neutrophils and macrophages play important roles in post-MI inflammation. ► Stem cells can modulate the immune response both in vitro and in vivo. ► MSC could be used as therapy for inflammation after acute cardiac injury.

* Legal Disclaimer: Chelation and Hyperbaric Therapy, Stem Cell Therapy, and other treatments and modalities mentioned or referred to in this web site are medical techniques that may or may not be considered “mainstream”. As with any medical treatment, results will vary among individuals, and there is no implication or guarantee that you will heal or achieve the same outcome as patients herein.

As with any procedure, there could be pain or other substantial risks involved. These concerns should be discussed with your health care provider prior to any treatment so that you have proper informed consent and understand that there are no guarantees to healing.

THE INFORMATION IN THIS WEBSITE IS OFFERED FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND DOES NOT IMPLY OR GIVE MEDICAL ADVICE. No Doctor/Patient relationship shall be deemed to have arisen simply by reading the information contained on these pages, and you should consult with your personal physician/care giver regarding your medical treatment before undergoing any sort of treatment or therapy.

Published on 06-02-2017
Authors: F. van den Akker, J.C. Deddens, P.A. Doevendans, J.P.G. Sluijter