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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate chronic high glucose-induced β-cell injury through modulation of autophagy *

Chronic hyperglycemia causes a progressive decrease of β-cell function and mass in type 2 diabetic patients. Growing evidence suggests that augment of autophagy may be an effective approach to protect βcells against various extra-/intracellular stimuli. In this study, we thus investigated whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) could ameliorate chronic high glucose (HG)-induced β-cell injury through modulation of autophagy. Prolonged exposure to HG decreased cell viability, increased cell apoptosis and impaired basal insulin secretion and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of INS-1 cells, but BM-MSC treatment significantly alleviated these glucotoxic alternations. In addition, western blotting displayed upregulated expression of Beclin1 and LC3-II in INS-1 cells co-cultured with BM-MSCs. Results from immunofluorescence staining and transmission electronic microscope analysis also revealed that BM-MSCs promoted autophagosomes and autolysosomes formation in HG-treated INS-1 cells. However, it should be noted that inhibition of autophagy significantly diminished the protective effects of BM-MSCs on HG-treated INS-1 cells, suggesting that the improvement of β-cell function and survival induced by BM-MSCs was mediated through autophagy. Furthermore, our results showed that BM-MSCs improved mitochondrial function and reduced reactive oxygen species production in HG-treated INS-1 cells, largely owing to autophagic clearance of impaired mitochondria. In vivo study was performed in rats with type 2 diabetes (T2D). BM-MSC infusion not only ameliorated hyperglycemia, but also promoted restoration of pancreatic β cells in T2D rats. Meanwhile, BM-MSC infusion upregulated LAMP2 expression and enhanced formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes, combined with reduced β-cell apoptosis and increased number of insulin granules. These findings together indicated that BM-MSCs could protect β cells against chronic HG-induced injury through modulation of autophagy in vitro and in vivo. This study unveiled novel evidence of BM-MSCs as an ideal strategy to enhance autophagy for treatment of T2D mellitus.

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As with any procedure, there could be pain or other substantial risks involved. These concerns should be discussed with your health care provider prior to any treatment so that you have proper informed consent and understand that there are no guarantees to healing.

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Published on 09-11-2017
Authors: K Zhao, H Hao, J Liu, C Tong, Y Cheng, Z Xie, L Zang, Y Mu and W Han