Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) derived from bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue is expected to become a cell therapy for stroke. The present study compared the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) with that of BM-derived stem cells (BMSC) in a murine stroke model.
ASC and BMSC were isolated from age-matched C57BL/6J mice. These MSC were analyzed for growth kinetics and their capacity to secrete trophic factors and differentiate toward neural and vascular cell lineages in vitro. For in vivo study, ASC or BMSC were administrated intravenously into recipient mice (1 × 105 cells/mouse) soon after reperfusion following a 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurologic deficits, the degree of infarction, expression of factors in the brain, and the fate of the injected cells were observed.
ASC showed higher proliferative activity with greater production of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) than BMSC. Furthermore, in vitro conditions allowed ASC to differentiate into neural, glial and vascular endothelial cells. ASC administration showed remarkable attenuation of ischemic damage, although the ASC were not yet fully incorporated into the infarct area. Nonetheless, the expression of HGF and angiopoietin-1 in ischemic brain tissue was significantly increased in ASC-treated mice compared with the BMSC group.
Compared with BMSC, ASC have great advantages for cell preparation because of easier and safer access to adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings suggest that ASC would be a more preferable source for cell therapy for brain ischemia than BMSC.