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Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in neuromyelitis optica: A registry study of the EBMT Autoimmune Diseases Working Party


Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system, hallmarked by pathogenic anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies. NMO prognosis is worse compared with multiple sclerosis. Objective: The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Autoimmune Diseases Working Party (ADWP) conducted a retrospective survey to analyze disease outcome following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Methods: This retrospective multicenter study assessed the efficacy and safety of ASCT in 16 patients suffering from refractory…

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Update on mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy in lupus and scleroderma


Current systemic therapies are rarely curative for patients with severe life-threatening forms of autoimmune diseases (ADs). During the past 15 years, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to cure some patients with severe AD refractory to all other available therapies. As a consequence, ADs such as lupus and scleroderma have become an emerging indication for cell therapy. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), isolated from bone marrow and other sites, display specific immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory…

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Plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells in immunomodulation: pathological and therapeutic implications


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that exist in many tissues and are capable of differentiating into several different cell types. Exogenously administered MSCs migrate to damaged tissue sites, where they participate in tissue repair. Their communication with the inflammatory microenvironment is an essential part of this process. In recent years, much has been learned about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interaction between MSCs and various participants in inflammation. Depending on…

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Recruited into Wounded Skin and Contribute to Wound Repair by Transdifferentiation into Multiple Skin Cell Type


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate not only into mesenchymal lineage cells but also into various other cell lineages. As MSCs can easily be isolated from bone marrow, they can be used in various tissue engineering strategies. In this study, we assessed whether MSCs can differentiate into multiple skin cell types including keratinocytes and contribute to wound repair. First, we found keratin 14-positive cells, presumed to be keratinocytes that transdifferentiated from MSCs in vitro. Next,…

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The safety of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


The potential role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been shown with varying degrees of success in animal models and in clinical trials. Evidence shows that it affects insulin resistance and secretory dysfunction of B-cells. It has also shown potential effects on immune system dysregulation and inflammatory mediators, both of which are involved in the basic pathogenesis of T2DM. The objective of our study was to…

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Preclinical Studies of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Administration in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Background In the last two decades, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been pre-clinically utilized in the treatment of a variety of kinds of diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the current study was to systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis on the published pre-clinical studies of MSC administration in the treatment of COPD in animal models. Methods and Results A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. Statistical analysis was performed…

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Human mesenchymal stromal cells exert HGF dependent cytoprotective effects in a human relevant pre-clinical model of COPD


Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potent immunomodulatory and tissue reparative properties, which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. This study examined the mechanisms by which human MSCs protect against elastase induced emphysema. Using a novel human relevant pre-clinical model of emphysema the efficacy of human MSC therapy and optimal cell dose were investigated. Protective effects were examined in the lung through histological examination. Further in vivo experiments…

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Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease


Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs) and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial…

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Therapeutic angiogenesis for patients with limb ischaemia by autologous transplantation of bone-marrow cells: a pilot study and a randomised controlled trial


Background Preclinical studies have established that implantation of bone marrow-mononuclear cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, into ischaemic limbs increases collateral vessel formation. We investigated efficacy and safety of autologous implantation of bone marrow-mononuclear cells in patients with ischaemic limbs because of peripheral arterial disease. Methods We first did a pilot study, in which 25 patients (group A) with unilateral ischaemia of the leg were injected with bone marrow-mononuclear cells into the gastrocnemius of the ischaemic…

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Long-term clinical outcome after intramuscular implantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (Therapeutic Angiogenesis by Cell Transplantation [TACT] trial) in patients with chronic limb ischemia


Background Angiogenic cell therapy by intramuscular injection of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells was first attempted in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) with critical limb ischemia, and the feasibility was shown by a randomized controlled Therapeutic Angiogenesis by Cell Transplantation (TACT) study. Methods and Results The present study was designed to assess the 3-year safety and clinical outcomes of this angiogenic cell therapy by investigating the mortality and leg amputation-free interval as primary end…

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