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Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells secrete functional neprilysin-bound exosomes


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in the brain because of an imbalance between Aβ production and clearance. Neprilysin (NEP) is the most important Aβ-degrading enzyme in the brain. Thus, researchers have explored virus-mediated NEP gene delivery. However, such strategies may entail unexpected risks, and thus exploration of a new possibility for NEP delivery is also required. Here, we show that human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) secrete…

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Stem Cell Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive and neurodegenerative disorder that induces dementia in older people. It was first reported in 1907 by Alois Alzheimer, who characterized the disease as causing memory loss and cognitive impairment. Pathologic characteristics of AD are β-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neurodegeneration. Current therapies only target the relief of symptoms using various drugs, and do not cure the disease. Recently, stem cell therapy has been shown to be a potential approach…

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Intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes neural regeneration after traumatic brain injury


To investigate the supplement of lost nerve cells in rats with traumatic brain injury by intravenous administration of allogenic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, this study established a Wistar rat model of traumatic brain injury by weight drop impact acceleration method and administered 3 × 10 6 rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via the lateral tail vein. At 14 days after cell transplantation, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in…

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Intranasal Delivery of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Macrophages, and Microglia to the Brain in Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease


In view of the rapid preclinical development of cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative disorders, traumatic brain injury, and tumors, the safe and efficient delivery and targeting of therapeutic cells to the central nervous system is critical for maintaining therapeutic efficacy and safety in the respective disease models. Our previous data demonstrated therapeutically efficacious and targeted delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the brain in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study…

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Benefit Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Disease


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, which induces neuron, kidney and eye dysfunction. Hyperglycemia is also a risk factor for dementia. T2DM also causes brain insulin resistance, oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. Futhermore, oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism resulting in insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people worldwide, and oxidative stress is an important pathogenic…

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Alzheimer’s Disease and Stem Cell Therapy


The loss of neuronal cells in the central nervous system may occur in many neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer’s disease is a common senile disease in people over 65 years, and it causes impairment characterized by the decline of mental function, including memory loss and cognitive impairment, and affects the quality of life of patients. However, the current therapeutic strategies against AD are only to relieve symptoms, but not to cure it. Because there are only a…

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Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Organ Repair


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are prototypical adult stem cells with the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation with a broad tissue distribution. MSCs not only differentiate into types of cells of mesodermal lineage but also into endodermal and ectodermal lineages such as bone, fat, cartilage and cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, lung epithelial cells, hepatocytes, neurons, and pancreatic islets. MSCs have been identified as an adherent, fibroblast-like population and can be isolated from different adult tissues, including bone…

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Stem Cell Therapy for Liver Disease: Parameters Governing the Success of Using Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells


Background & Aims: Liver transplantation is the primary treatment for various end-stage hepatic diseases but is hindered by the lack of donor organs and by complications associated with rejection and immunosuppression. There is increasing evidence to suggest the bone marrow is a transplantable source of hepatic progenitors. We previously reported that multipotent bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells with almost 100% induction frequency under defined conditions, suggesting the potential for clinical…

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Adult Bone Marrow Cell Therapy Improves Survival and Induces Long-Term Improvement in Cardiac Parameters: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Background: Despite rapid clinical translation and widespread enthusiasm, the therapeutic benefits of adult bone marrow cell (BMC) transplantation in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) continue to remain controversial. A synthesis of the available data is critical to appreciate and underscore the true impact of this promising approach. Methods and Results: A total of 50 studies (enrolling 2,625 patients) identified by database searches through January 2012 were included. Weighted Mean Differences for changes in left…

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Delayed Intranasal Delivery of Hypoxic-Preconditioned Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhanced Cell Homing and Therapeutic Benefits After Ischemic Stroke in Mice


Stem cell transplantation therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for ischemic stroke and other neurodegenerative diseases. Effective delivery of exogenous cells and homing of these cells to the lesion region, however, have been challenging issues that hinder the efficacy and efficiency of cell-based therapy. In the present investigation, we tested a delayed treatment of noninvasive and brain-targeted intranasal delivery of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a mouse focal cerebral ischemia model. The…

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