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Current status of drug therapies for osteoporosis and the search for stem cells adapted for bone regenerative medicine


A number of factors can lead to bone disorders such as osteoporosis, in which the balance of bone resorption vs. bone formation is upset (i.e., more bone is resorbed than is formed). The result is a loss of bone mass, with a concomitant decrease in bone density. Drugs for osteoporosis can be broadly classified as “bone resorption inhibitors”, which impede bone resorption by osteoclasts, and “bone formation accelerators”, which augment bone formation by osteoblasts. Here,…

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Stem Cell Niches for Skin Regeneration


Stem cell-based therapies offer tremendous potential for skin regeneration following injury and disease. Functional stem cell units have been described throughout all layers of human skin and the collective physical and chemical microenvironmental cues that enable this regenerative potential are known as the stem cell niche. Stem cells in the hair follicle bulge, interfollicular epidermis, dermal papillae, and perivascular space have been closely investigated as model systems for niche-driven regeneration. These studies suggest that stem…

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Critical path in cardiac stem cell therapy: an update on cell delivery


Despite optimal medical therapy, cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One emerging therapeutic approach for treatment of cardiomyopathies is stem cell therapy. Use of stem cells for regenerative medicine has quickly evolved over the last decade. On the basis of encouraging pre-clinical results, stem cell therapy has developed rapidly into a potentially promising treatment for ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. In this review, we summarize the…

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Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Revascularization Outcomes to Restore Renal Function in Swine Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis


Reno-protective strategies are needed to improve renal outcomes in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can promote renal regeneration, but their potential for attenuating cellular injury and restoring kidney repair in ARAS has not been explored. We hypothesized that replenishment of MSC as an adjunct to percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) would restore renal cellular integrity and improve renal function in ARAS pigs. Four groups of pigs (n…

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Allogeneic adipose stem cell therapy in acute myocardial infarction


Background Stem cell therapy offers a promising approach to reduce the long-term mortality rate associated with heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To date, in vivo translational studies have not yet fully studied the immune response to allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ATMSCs). We analysed the immune response and the histological and functional effects of allogeneic ATMSCs in a porcine model of reperfused AMI and determine the effect of administration timing. Design Pigs…

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A preliminary report on stem cell therapy for neuropathic pain in humans


Objective Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown in animal models to attenuate chronic neuropathic pain. This preliminary study investigated if: i) injections of autologous MSCs can reduce human neuropathic pain and ii) evaluate the safety of the procedure. Methods Ten subjects with symptoms of neuropathic trigeminal pain underwent liposuction. The lipoaspirate was digested with collagenase and washed with saline three times. Following centrifugation, the stromal vascular fraction was resuspended in saline, and then transferred…

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Therapeutic effects of human adipose stem cell-conditioned medium on stroke


Stem cell therapy is a promising approach for stroke. However, low survival rates and potential tumorigenicity of implanted cells could undermine the efficacy of the cell-based treatment. The use of stem cell-conditioned medium (CM) may be a feasible approach to overcome these limitations. Especially, specific stem cell culture condition and continuous infusion of CM into ischemic brains would have better therapeutic results. The CM was prepared by culturing human adipose-derived stem cells in a three-dimensional…

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Stem Cell Applications for the Treatment of Gastrointestinal System Diseases


Gastrointestinal system is formed by organs with complex morphology and functions. Digestive tract is not a sterile medium and is exposed to external environment aggressions. As a result, its diseases are complex and encompass a broad spectrum of pathogenic mechanisms and their treatment is often challenging and frequently incurable or chronicity-tending processes are found. In this scenario, stem cells with their differentiation potential and encouraging properties could be helpful. Nowadays Stem Cells have yielded promising…

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Mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms of potential therapeutic benefit in ARDS and sepsis


Multipotent mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) have shown promising therapeutic effects in preclinical models of both acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. Although initial research focused on the ability of MSCs to engraft at sites of tissue injury, increasing evidence suggests that MSCs have their therapeutic effects through mechanisms unrelated to long-term incorporation into host tissue. One of the most compelling of these pathways is the ability of MSCs to interact with injured tissue…

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Adipose-derived Stem Cells for Myocardial Infarction


In recent years, stem cell treatment of myocardial infarction has elicited great enthusiasm upon scientists and physicians alike, thus making the finding of a suitable cell a compulsory subject for modern medicine. Due to its potential, accessibility and efficiency of harvesting, adipose tissue has become one of the most attractive sources of stem cells for regenerative therapies. The differentiation capacity and the paracrine activity of these cells has made them an optimal candidate for the…

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