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Applicability of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a form of early onset diabetes mellitus characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells (IPCs), resulting in hyperglycemia and abnormal glucose metabolism. There are currently no treatments available capable of completely curing the symptoms associated with the loss or functional defects of IPCs. Nonetheless, stem cell therapy has demonstrated considerable promise in the replacement of IPCs with immunomodulatory functions to overcome the defects caused by T1DM. Adipose-derived stem…

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Atherosclerotic Lesions via Restoring Endothelial Function


Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is beneficial in myocardial infarction and hind limb ischemia, but its ability to ameliorate atherosclerosis remains unknown. Here, the effects of MSCs on inhibiting endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis were investigated in human/mouse endothelial cells treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE2/2) mice fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with oxLDL inactivated the Akt/endothelial nitricoxide synthase (eNOS) pathway, induced eNOS degradation, and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production…

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Murine Atherosclerosis Development


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have regenerative properties, but recently they were also found to have immunomodulatory capacities. We therefore investigated whether MSCs could reduce atherosclerosis, which is determined by dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. We adoptively transferred MSCs into low-density lipoprotein-receptor knockout mice and put these on a Western-type diet to induce atherosclerosis. Initially after treatment, we found higher levels of circulating regulatory T cells. In the long-term, overall numbers of effector T cells were reduced…

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Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Reparative Potential in Ischemic Heart Disease


Adipose tissue has long been considered an energy storage and endocrine organ; however, in recent decades, this tissue has also been considered an abundant source of mesenchymal cells. Adipose-derived stem cells are easily obtained, show a strong capacity for ex vivo expansion and differentiation to other cell types, release a large variety of angiogenic factors, and have immunomodulatory properties. Thus, adipose tissue is currently the focus of considerable interest in the field of regenerative medicine….

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Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate atherosclerosis by elevating number and function of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells and inhibiting macrophage foam cell formation


Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of plaques inside arteries, leading to narrowing and blockage. Potential therapeutic strategies include expanding the population of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) to enhance atheroprotective immunity, and inhibiting the formation of macrophage foam cells. Here, we studied the effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on atherosclerotic plaque formation in Apolipoprotein E−/−(ApoE-KO) mice, and elucidated the underlying mechanism. BM-MSCs isolated from 4 week-old ApoE-KO mice were evaluated…

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Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Modulates Endotheliogenesis of Human Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells


Background: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a potential adult mesenchymal stem cell source for restoring endothelial function in critical limb ischemia patients. Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) play a major role in angiogenesis and wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of FGF and VEGF on human ASCs proliferation, migration and potential endothelial differentiation regards to their use as endothelial cell (EC) substitutes. Methods: ASCs were isolated from clinical lipoaspirates and…

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Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Systemic Bone Loss in Collagen-Induced Arthritis


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammatory synovitis leading to joint destruction and systemic bone loss. The inflammation-induced bone loss is mediated by increased osteoclast formation and function. Current antirheumatic therapies primarily target suppression of inflammatory cascade with limited or no success in controlling progression of bone destruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by virtue of their tissue repair and immunomodulatory properties have shown promising results in various autoimmune and degenerative diseases….

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Stem Cell Therapies for Post-Traumatic Arthritis


Post-traumatic arthritis is a progressive and debilitating joint disease that commonly occurs following joint trauma, such as ligament injury, meniscal tear, or intra-articular fracture. However, there are few therapeutic approaches currently available that have been shown to alter the course of this disease. Recent studies have shown that several different types of adult stem cells possess regenerative capabilities for a wide range of disease states. In particular, several studies have shown that exogenously delivered stem…

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Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Arthritis by Modifying Early Adaptive T Cell Responses


Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells with immunosuppressive properties. They have emerged as a very promising treatment for autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Recent data have identified that GM-CSF-expressing CD4 T cells and Th17 cells have critical roles in the pathogenesis of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Although many studies have demonstrated that MSCs can either prevent or suppress inflammation, no studies have addressed their modulation on GM-CSF-expressing CD4 T cells and…

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Adipose-derived stem cells for wound repair and regeneration


The use of undifferentiated cells for cell-based tissue repair and regeneration strategies represents a promising approach for chronic wound healing. Multipotent adult stem cells isolated from adipose tissue, termed adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), appear to be an ideal population of stem cells because they are autologous, non-immunogenic, plentiful, and easily obtained. Both preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that ASCs have potential for wound healing due to the mechanisms described below. Areas covered: Both in…

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